With a Prism and Snowden inspired kick in the backside I finally got around to establishing some autonomy from the Big Boys with respect to email, contacts, calendar, network storage/sync and other common personal use SaaSs. No rocket science here, just a consolidation of lots of "which one is best for me" research, "follow the tutorial" efforts and Google and log file problems/solutions to explain how to install, configure and maintain the types of services you get "for free" from Google, Apple, Dropbox and the rest.
This article is an overview of how to accomplish replacing the important Big SaaS, it is not a detailed step-by-step with every command listed. I reference a number of other web pages and tutorials to help with the harder parts.
Here is a basic overview of the substitutions:
|Hosting and OS||Google, Apple, Microsoft, Yahoo, ...||Digital Ocean "Droplets"|
|Google, Apple, Microsoft, Yahoo, ...||postfix, dovecot|
|Network storage and sync||Dropbox, Copy, Google Drive||ownCloud|
The aspirational criteria I had for the substitutions were:
- Open source
- Supported with apt-get or similar installer with an up-to-date stable version available
- At least some recent community activity and support
- Positive reviews, particularly as versus their popular commercial alternatives
- Free or close to it
- Targeted solutions, not one package that is providing many services (e.g., MS Exchange vs Postfix)
It's also important to keep in mind that these solutions generally won't be as good as their popular commercial alternatives where armies of developers and systems administrators support them and taking advantage of big economies of scale and underpricing. To take this path you're going to forfeit convenience, better usability, rock solid systems and uptime, macro level security, and "free" pricing for greater privacy and control.
Lastly, there are many more areas that could be substituted and I've not done or written these up yet - I note at least some of them at the bottom of article.
What's Required From You
You have to be able to do the following to get this working:
- Basic Unix shell commands and configuration file editing
- Willingness to read various tutorials and how-tos and be able to google for the rest
- Willingness to pay $5 per month for hosting and another $1 per month for backups
- Accept having a total data footprint of 15GB or less (or be willing to pay for more storage)
- A basic understanding of SSL certificates is useful
1. Create an SSH key
Follow Digital Ocean's tutorial to create your own key.
2. Have a domain name ready to use
There are many companies that offer domain registration.
Set up an account with Digital Ocean (digitalocean.com). Their basic IaaS virtual server ("Droplet") is cheap, plenty performant for our uses here and their management and provisioning interface is pleasantly usable.
Buy the cheapest cheapest droplet at $5 per month (1 CPU, 512MB RAM, 20GB Disk, 1TB transfer). This will provide plenty of horsepower and space for the average user.
You might select "Amsterdam" as your region if you thought that might provide a safer environment for your data as opposed to hosting that is based in the USA (Digital Ocean's other sites are in New York and San Francisco).
Select OS "Ubuntu 12.04 x64". You could probably safely use the newer versions, I've just not moved up to them yet.
Install the SSH certificate you created in step 1.
Enable "VirtIO" if you want. Whatever it is.
After your new virtual server is created, activate automatic backups for it. They may only be taken about once per week but they're a bargain at $1 per month.
Set up your new domain name to point to your new droplet IP address. Digital Ocean's DNS interface is easier than godaddy's. Configure your domain to use Digital Ocean's DNS.
NOTE: The only thing I don't like about Digital Ocean for hosting is there is no apparent way to cost effectively scale just disk size. I'd like to keep the memory and CPU of the smallest instance but then easily scale up disk space. Replacing network storage and big IMAP email archives will exceed the 20GB limit for "power" users. There are plenty of other providers and some allow a low-performance-high-disk-space specification. However, among the usual suspects like Amazon and Rackspace along with a number of others I found googling around, I didn't find any in the same price range as Digital Ocean. Maybe Digital Ocean will add the feature of cost effectively adding disk space only in the future.
Verify you can log in as root using ssh and the ssh certificate you created.
Restrict root login to only allow certificate based logins.
Create a new user that you'll use to do most work from here forward.
Enable new user for sudo use.
Install zsh (or your preferred shell if its not already present) and make it your default shell. Update your login shell preferences.
Create/deploy another ssh certificate for the new user you've created.
Install iptables as your firewall. Digital Ocean has a good tutorial.
5. Supporting applications
Before we get to the applications we want, we have to install their supporting applications.
Install postgres - used by davical
Install MySQL - used by ownCloud
Install Apache and PHP - used by almost everything
Install phppgadmin - used to administer the Postgres / davical database
Install phpmyadmin - used to administer the MySQL / ownCloud database
6. Create a free SSL Certificate and install it
The certificate will be used by a number of services we install.
Use this tutorial at arstechnica to create a free Class 1 SSL certificate with startssl.com.
- startssl.com creates an S/MIME and authentication certificate and automatically installs in your browser. You might want to save the authentication certificate someplace secure.
- Certificate only good for one year - just remember you need to renew it each year (all your services dependant on a valid SSL cert will stop working when cert expires)
Note: I don't typically use webmail, so I didn't bother installing a webmail service.
Install postfix - see Digital Ocean tutorial
Install dovecot - also see Digital Ocean tutorial, my user comments on dovecot
Update DNS MX record.
Adjust iptables firewall settings - see Digital Ocean tutorial
- I found "apt-get install mail-stack-delivery" did the heavy lifting for me here.
- Make sure you un/comment out exactly what you want in /etc/postfix/master.cf
- Increased value of mail_max_userip_connections from 10 to 30 in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/01-mail-stack-delivery.conf due to an IMAP error limit popping up in OS X mail.
- Digital Ocean has subsequently created a tutorial for iRedMail - looks easier to set up and includes a webmail interface
Note: not added in spam filtering yet.
8. Contacts and Calendar
I looked at and discounted the following:
- calendarserver - depends on extended file attributes; apt-get exists but doesn't appear to be maintained
- radicale - no backoffice, feels too barebones
- baikai - No apt-get; synology's choice for their sync app
- ownCloud - ownCloud already looks bloated
9. Network storage and sync
The goal here is secure and pervasively available files. Like Dropbox and the paid version of BoxCryptor - both of which are closed source and therefore non-starters with my stated criteria.
You can create an encrypted filesystem on your main OS, ideally once that can be used by several OSs and place the system in ownCloud network synced storage. When choosing an filesystem, it's important that the encrypted filesystem is in separate files or some type of chunks, not one big blob (like truecrypt) as big blobs don't sync well when you have concurrent clients syncing. Ideally you want a filesystem that encrypts file names, content, and inode structures separately in small efficient pieces. While interesting, I'm seeing enough limitations and sync problems with OS X's encrypted sparse bundle approach that I don't recommend it (use EncFS if you can; else use BoxCryptor even though its closed source).
iOS and Android Support
The above approach is fully supported by iOS and Android devices using standard protocols:
- Managing email via Secure IMAP
- Sending mail via Secure SMTP
- Calendar via calDav over https
- Contacts via cardDav over https
- Network storage and sync via ownCloud iOS/Android apps; runs over over https
This probably goes without saying, but assume you'll lose your device at some point. Think about what is on the device and how easy it is to access it. Do you use a PIN with a self-destruct after so many incorrect entries? Do you have logins and passwords in Contacts or Notes files?
You will have to renew your startssl.com security certificate each year.
Spin up the occasional backup on another droplet to verify backups and the restore process works.
Nothing is 100% secure. The approach I've presented here has two big problems:
- Hoards of security specialists at the big companies will collectively know more about security than you or I ever will. Security exploits of fairly new and not widely used applications like ownCloud and davical are possible. You're therefore effectively trading off having thousands of staff at the big SaaS providers or the government having access to your data vs relying on common sense security basics to stay safe. In this case, we've done the basics:
- We're running the iptables firewall with only the bare minimum of ports open
- All coms over SSL
- We're not storing the actual data on the server in an encrypted format. Ideally we'd use an encrypted filesystem on the server so that the hosting provider couldn't snoop disk data. Of course, decrypting "on the fly" as applications access the encrypted disk is also a risk, but without using your own secured physical server you are stuck with that problem.
I've not yet installed openvpn. Could switch access to potentially vulnerable apps like Davical's backoffice, phpmyadmin, phppgadmin to VPN only access. I did add in .htaccess/.htpasswd files across the backoffices for slightly better security.
Lastly, this is pretty obvious, but use long passwords with lots of variation between passwords and a mix of letters (upper/lower), numbers, and symbols.
Google, Apple, Dropbox and others provide a great no/low cost option for services like email, personal information management and network storage. Signing up for an account with Google is a lot easier and cheaper than the approach outlined above. You get most of these services "for free". So if the thought of Google, Apple, Dropbox and others reading your emails and documents and enabling governments to do likewise doesn't bother you at all, then by all means use their free services.
However, if you think you have a right to personal information privacy without business and governments having the ability to read it then you might want to consider implementation of the approach in this tutorial.
What have I missed and what has worked well for you?